What is it?
Tendinitis is the inflammation or irritation of a tendon, a thick cord that connects the muscle to the bone. The tendons transmit the energy generated by the muscles to help move a joint.
Tendinitis usually compromises the following areas:
What is the cause?
Various factors are causing tendinitis, including:
Other diseases or conditions:
What are the symptoms?
Tendinitis usually affects only one part of the body at a time.
Rotator cuff tendinitis and pinching syndrome : there are four muscles that make up the rotator cuff. These muscles serve to move the shoulder in and out. Rotator cuff tendinitis occurs when excessive use or injury to the shoulder causes the tendons to become irritated or inflamed. The pinching syndrome (pinching) occurs when the tendons are pressed between the structures involved in the movement of the shoulder. The symptoms are: painintense on the shoulder or upper arm when lifting and moving it. In some cases, this type of tendonitis may recur or worsen over time or when repetitive movements are performed. Generally you can perform activities with your arms and hands with your arms at your sides and down without causing pain. Biceps
tendinitis (calcified tendinitis) : The biceps tendon is in front of the shoulder and helps to bend the elbow and shoulder forward and to turn the forearm. Inflammation of this tendon can result from overuse or injury. Symptoms are pain in front of the shoulder that can radiate to the elbow and forearm
Tendinitis De Quervain:This disorder affects the wrists and is the result of excessive use of the thumb tendons, often caused by repeated compression of the thumb when moving the wrist. It can occur with activities such as writing , gardening , fine manual labor or in the assembly of various artifacts. The excessive use of small electronic devices such as video games or devices to send messages can also cause this type of tendonitis. It occurs often in women during and after pregnancy. The symptoms are pain and swelling in the wrist on the side of the thumb, especially with the movement of the same.
Achilian tendinitis (heel tendinitis)is the inflammation of the Achilles tendon, which is the tendon that connects the calf muscles with the heel and helps lift the foot off the floor. It usually occurs as a result of a sports injury or the use of inappropriate shoes . The use of certain antibiotics can also cause Achilian tendonitis. The symptoms are swelling and stiffness of the ankles and pain or in the back of the ankle when lifting the fingers or when treading on the sole of the foot, these movements are normally done when walking, so doing it can become painful.
Tarsal tunnel syndrome
A related disease, called tarsal tunnel syndrome, can affect the tibial nerve located on the inside of the ankles and provides sensation of touch to the toes and sole of the foot. Compression of the tibial nerve can occur when the ankle fractures, due to rheumatoid arthritis or foot deformities. Symptoms include painful burning in the toes and sole of the foot, usually at night or after standing and pain that is partially relieved by moving the foot, ankle or leg.
How is it diagnosed?
The doctor will elaborate your clinical history through questions like these:
Treatment of rheumatic soft tissue syndromes
(bursitis, tendonitis, myofascial pain, carpal tunnel tennis elbow, golfer's elbow, tenosynovitis and plantar fasciitis)
Soft-tissue syndromes such as bursitis and tendonitis are very common in people They are rather healthy. Many of the syndromes disappear by themselves over time. In most cases, the general practitioner can treat these types of disorders. Some people should be seen by a rheumatologist (a specialist in arthritis, rheumatic diseases and related musculoskeletal conditions) for treatment.
The treatment is based on the reduction of pain and inflammation and on the preservation of mobility and prevention of disability and recurrence. The treatment of many soft tissue diseases is similar. Your doctor's recommendations may include the combination of rest, orthotics , application of heat and cold , medications, physical or occupational therapy . You can try different treatments before finding the one that feels best to you. The following sections describe various treatments that your doctor may prescribe for you.
Rest and orthopedic devices
Many soft tissue diseases are due to excessive use, so the first treatment may include rest of the affected area or avoid a particular activity for a certain time. Rest allows the injured or inflamed area to heal.
The braces allow the particular area rest until the pain subsides. The splints are used to help tennis elbow, DeQuervain tendinitis, Achilian tendinitis and carpal tunnel syndrome . These devices should not be used indefinitely because they may result in limited movement and force. Ask your doctor how long and how often you should bring these devices.
Cold compresses can help reduce initial inflammation and pain in acute conditions (severe but short-lived). Cold therapy is usually most effective during the first 48 hours after the onset of inflammation. The guidelines for cold therapy are as follows:
After 48 hours of chronic (long-term) pain, heat, dry or wet, may be more beneficial than cold compresses. Follow these tips:
Your doctor can prescribe medicines or suggest that you try various over-the-counter (OTC) medicines to help relieve pain and / or inflammation. The following medications are commonly used to treat soft tissue diseases.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( NSAIDs ) reduce inflammation and pain. There are different kinds of NSAIDs, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen and ketoprofen. These drugs can be obtained with or without a prescription. Your doctor will determine which medication is appropriate for your condition based on factors such as your age, other medical problems, habits, other medications you are consuming, side effects, and the cost of the drug.
The effects of NSAIDs include heartburn, nausea, diarrhea, ease of bleeding or presence of bruising and dizziness. More severe effects are ulcers, kidney problems and inflammation of the liver. Talk to your doctor if you notice any of the following signs while you are being treated with NSAIDs: stomach pains or cramps, pain that goes down after eating or taking antacids, bloody or black stools, vomiting with blood. Most people with soft tissue syndromes do not need long treatment with NSAIDs because the treated condition usually lasts a few weeks.
Corticosteroids are synthetic forms of cortisol, which is a natural hormone of the body. The corticosteroids reduce inflammation. Most rheumatic soft tissue syndromes can be treated with corticosteroids injected into the pouch, joint, or tendon to reduce inflammation and pain. These injections are typically used if NSAIDs or other therapies do not provide relief after three to four weeks of treatment. (Corticosteroids in pill form are not used for this type of disorder). Symptoms may diminish or disappear several days after the injection. The risks of these injections can be bleeding, infection, rupture of the tendon or atrophy of the skin. Frequent injections in the same area are not recommended.
Your doctor can refer you to a physical therapist, who can provide the following therapies:
Occupational therapy Occupational
therapists can identify modifications in daily activities and work habits to prevent repeat injuries. These therapists can also create splints for their hands and wrists and suggest devices to help make their daily activities easier. The Occupational therapists can recommend exercises for fingers, wrists and elbows.
Surgery Surgery is
rarely needed to treat most of these conditions. However, you may need surgery if the problems persist and other treatments do not improve the symptoms.
Who is at risk?
Prevention of rheumatic soft tissue syndromes
(Bursitis, tendinitis, myofacial pain, carpal tunnel, tennis elbow, golfer's elbow, tenosynovitis and plantar fasciitis)
Since many soft tissue conditions are due to excessive use, the best treatment It is prevention. It is important to avoid or modify the activities that cause the problem. They must correct triggering conditions such as differences in leg length, position or incorrect technique in the execution of sports or work.
Be aware of excessive use or damage during your daily activities and change your habits to prevent problems. Otherwise, problems may persist or occur repeatedly. Here are some ideas on how to avoid future problems:
Protecting the hips
Protecting the ankles and feet